Unia Europejska

foto Piotr Ślipiński

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 135-147

Sympatric fruit bat species (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in the Comoro Islands (Western Indian Ocean): diurnality, feeding interactions and their conservation implications


1Action Comores, c/o School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Action Comores, The Old Rectory, Stansfield, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO 10 8LT, United Kingdom
3Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
4Cresswell Associates, Willow House, Slad Road, Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 1QJ, United Kingdom

The fruit bats Pteropus livingstonii and Pteropus seychellensis comorensis coexist on two of the Comoro Islands, in the Western Indian Ocean. Pteropus livingstonii is more diurnally active than P. s. comorensis. Differences exist in the feeding strategies exhibited by both species when feeding together on kapok (Ceiba pentandra), with P. livingstonii dominant in aggressive interactions with P. s. comorensis. Preliminary investigations suggest that, although there may be some overlap in feeding ecology, with both species feeding on native forest plants, there may be little evidence of overlap in the native fruits eaten. These differences complement known differences in the roosting ecology, flight behaviour, morphology and timing of reproduction of the two sympatric Pteropus species, and suggest that P. s. comorensis does not act as a major limiting factor on P. livingstonii. The implications for the conservation of the Critically Endangered P. livingstonii are discussed.

Key words: Pteropus, Comoro Islands, sympatric species, diurnality, foraging ecology, conservation

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 149-162

Distribution, relative abundance, and conservation status of the large flying fox, Pteropus vampyrus, in peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary assessment


1School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Malaysia
2Center for Ecology and Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
3Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

An 11-month survey was undertaken to assess the relative abundance and distribution of the large flying fox, Pteropus vampyrus, in peninsular Malaysia. A total of 115 locations were visited based on sites that were identified from personal observations, published records, and information obtained from local villagers and wildlife and forestry personnel. Our survey suggests a severe decline in the abundance and distribution of P. vampyrus throughout peninsular Malaysia. At nearly half of all sites visited, there were no recent records or observations of this species. Several sites were used on a seasonal basis, others appeared to have been abandoned due to disturbance or habitat loss, and still others may have been extirpated by hunting. Most extant colonies are presumably located deep in isolated and inaccessible forests and in dense riparian vegetation such as mangrove and freshwater swamps. We suggest that unregulated hunting and habitat loss are the primary reasons for the decline in abundance of this species in peninsular Malaysia. Inadequacies in existing laws should be addressed and a public awareness program launched so that an effective conservation and management plan can be formulated to ensure the long-term survival of this ecologically important species.

Key words: abundance, conservation, distribution, management, Pteropus vampyrus

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 163-178

Inventory of insectivorous bats on Mount Makiling, Philippines using echolocation call signatures and a new tunnel trap


Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607, USA, and
Field Museum of Natural History, Division of Mammals, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The call signatures of sixteen Philippine insectivorous bat species are described, and used to inventory bats on Mount Makiling, Luzon. I compare these acoustic diversity data to those collected with mist nets, and a newly designed tunnel trap. The Rhinolophidae used calls with unique constant frequency components. Most vespertilionid calls could be identified to species based on call shape and minimum frequency, with the exception of those used by Pipistrellus spp. and Miniopterus schreibersii. The tunnel trap, mist nets, and the Anabat II detector recorded 22 species, including eight new records for Mount Makiling. Eighteen percent of the species were captured in mist nets, 68% were trapped, and 77% were detected acoustically. Twenty species were recorded either acoustically or with the trap. Two species were recorded exclusively with mist-nets, three with the tunnel trap, and four were only detected with the bat detector. Generally, bats possessing low intensity calls were not detected acoustically or captured in mist nets, but were captured in the tunnel trap. The tunnel trap captured most species flying below the canopy and the bat detector was effective for inventorying those flying above.

Key words: Anabat, echolocation, Emballonuridae, inventory, Megadermatidae, Philippines, Rhinolophidae, tunnel trap, Vespertilionidae

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 179-195

Winter activity in the tree-roosting lesser short-tailed bat,
Mystacina tuberculata, in a cold-temperate climate in New Zealand


Department of Zoology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, and
Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 743, Invercargill, New Zealand
Reprint request: 7 Kowhai Terrace, Christchurch 8002, New Zealand
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This study assesses the extent of midwinter activity (June-July, 1996, 1998) in an island population of lesser short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) located at the southern limit (= highest latitude) of the species' distribution. Activity of radio-tagged bats (n = 22 bats) was monitored over 38 nights (years combined). A mean ą SE of 64.1 ą 6.5% (range = 0-100%) of radio-tagged bats flew on each night monitored when mean minimum temperature was 3.4 ą 0.5°C. Temperatures ranged from -1.0 to 8.9°C, and 33% of tagged bats flew on the coldest night. Video-monitoring revealed high levels of activity at 11 large communally occupied tree roosts on 100% of nights monitored (n = 31 nights, years combined). Mean minimum temperatures on these nights was 3.0°C ą 0.5 (range = -1.4-7.1). Periods of activity were associated with feeding, social displays and changing roost sites. Movements of bats were dynamic with large numbers emerging from and entering roosts, often simultaneously, throughout most of the night (mean = 81.9 ą 3.3% of night). Maximum numbers of active bats in tree cavities at one time numbered > 100 individuals on 75% of nights monitored. These included nine nights when individuals numbered > 500, and five nights when individuals numbered > 1,000 (maximum = 1,443). Radio-tagged bats spent 57.1 ą 9.7% of time monitored roosting alone and the remainder roosting communally. They changed roost site on average every 4.2 ą 0.8 days moving between a total of 35 different roosts. Roosts were often re-used either by the same individual or by several different bats. Most radio-tagged bats visited communal night roosts that were different from those they had used during the day, with up to eight radio-tagged individuals visiting simultaneously. Lower levels of activity were recorded at six roosts that were occupied on the same nights as large active communal roosts. Video-monitoring over a total of 31 nights revealed external activity at these roosts on only 11 nights (35.4%). One radio-tagged bat did not emerge for 13 days. I suggest that winter activity may not be as energetically expensive for M. tuberculata as for many other cold-temperate bat species. Their ability to forage on terrestrial invertebrates, which are not commonly available to other species, and to select different roost sites where they could either remain active or relatively inactive, may allow them to be active more frequently and for longer durations.

Key words: Mystacinidae, emergence counts, roost use, winter behavior

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 197-201

The influence of residual tree patch isolation on habitat use by bats
in central British Columbia


1Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, S4S OA2, Canada; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Present address: Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George V2N 4Z9, Canada

One forest management practice associated with logging aimed at contributing to the maintenance of biodiversity is to leave residual tree patches within cut blocks. Using Anabat bat-detectors we monitored bat activity along residual tree patch edges and clear-cut edges associated with recent clear-cuts in north-central British Columbia. We tested two hypotheses, (1) relative bat activity would be higher on the dear-cut edge than the residual patch edge, (2) relative bat activity would decrease on the residual patch edge with increasing isolation from the clear-cut edge. We sampled six pairs of edges and found no significant difference in bat activity between patch and clear-cut edges. We found a significant but non-linear relationship between relative bat activity on the patch edge with increasing patch isolation. Bat activity on the residual patch edge was highest at intermediate levels of patch isolation and lower both at patch edges close to, and highly isolated from the clear-cut edge. We postulate that the reason for this relationship is that patches act as windbreaks collecting high densities of insects making them good foraging areas but this benefit is coupled with an increased risk of predation associated with Crossing large gaps. At low levels of patch isolation bats may perceive residual patches and adjacent clear-cut edges as a continuous foraging area and thus, bat activity is evenly distributed throughout both habitats. In summary, our data indicate that patches provide localized habitat for foraging bats, however, foraging areas are only one habitat component required by bats and it remains uncertain if patches also offer suitable roosting opportunities.

Key words: Microchiroptera, habitat use, residual tree patch, fragmentation, gap crossing, clear-cut, Anabat

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 203-210

Foods of the northern myotis, Myotis septentrionalis, from Missouri and Indiana, with notes on foraging


1781 Neeb Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45233, USA
2Department of Life Sciences, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809, USA 3Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This paper presents information on foods eaten by the northern myotis, Myotis septentrionalis, from four different localities in the states of Missouri and Indiana, USA. Based on fecal and stomach content analyses, we found that M. septentrionalis feeds heavily on Lepidoptera (10.4-94.0% of the volume), and to a lesser extent on Coleoptera (0.4-64.0), Trichoptera (0.0-54.5), and Diptera (0.0-15.3). Non-flying prey items, such as spiders and lepidopterous larvae, made up 12.7% of food in 63 stomachs from Copperhead Cave, Indiana, which is a clear indication of the gleaning behavior of this species. Foraging was concentrated in the understory of non-riparian habitat, which may be a further reflection of a gleaning strategy. No significant differences were found in the overall diet of M. septentrionalis between evening and morning feeding periods, although there were some differences in consumption of particular orders.

Key words: Myotis septentrionalis, Vespertilionidae, diet, foraging strategy, prey selection

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 211-215

Finding prey by associative learning in gleaning bats:
experiments with a Natterer's bat Myotis nattereri


Department of Animal Physiology, Zoological Institute, University of Tübingen, Aufder Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

I show that a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was operantly conditioned to echo cues from a large object; in this case a round bowl full of mealworms. In a subsequent choice experiment the bat preferred the empty, round bowl over an unknown, quadratic bowl filled with prey. I suggest that the quick but transient learning of cues indicating prey rich habitat patches might be adaptive for bats hunting in cluttered environments, where they can often not directly detect prey using echolocation. Therefore, it might be an additional foraging strategy of some gleaning bats to search for specific structural cues indicating a high probability of prey being present.

Key words: Myotis nattereri, prey perception, echolocation, learning, operant conditioning, gleaning, foraging

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 217-223

Growth rate and development in infant Natterer's bats
(Myotis nattereri) reared in a flight room


Zoology Department, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, Great Britain
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Myotis nattereri born and reared by their mothers in a flight room had a mean birth body mass of 3.4 g and forearm length of 17.00 mm. Infants opened their eyes at 6 days old, and they were no longer always found roosting attached to their mothers after this age. They were fully furred at 7-8 days and began to flap their wings at 15 days. Growth was initially rapid and linear until 20 days of age and then slowed. At 58-60 days, mean body mass was 8.8 g (89% of adult mass) and mean forearm length was 40.55 mm (98% of adult length). Juveniles began to fly at 20 days, at which age their forearm length was 93.4% of mean adult value. Forearm data were best fitted by the logistic growth model (k = 0.18; asymptotic length = 40.79 mm for males) and body mass data by the von Bertalanffy equation (k = 0.10; asymptotic mass = 8.42 g for males). Pre-flight growth and development rates were similar to those in other British vespertilionid bats, but M. nattereri showed very rapid development of foraging ability after they began to fly. Mothers suckled only their own infants and transported flightless young between roost boxes, on average every 5.3 days.

Key words: Myotis nattereri, growth, development, forearm length, body mass, weaning, maternal care

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 225-235

Morphological specializations of Cheiromeles (naked bulldog bats;
Molossidae) and their possible role in quadrupedal locomotion


1Natural Science Division, Southampton College of Long Island University, 236 Montauk Highway, Southampton, New York 11968, USA; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Division of Vertebrate Zoology (Mammalogy), American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024, USA

Two molossids, Cheiromeles torquatus and C. parvidens, display a number of morphological characteristics that appear unique among Chiroptera. In this study, adult specimens of both species (fluid-preserved and skeletons) were examined using a dissecting microscope and camera lucida. Several unique morphological features are described in detail for the first time with comments on their possible functions. These include a hallux (digit I) that is positioned at a right angle to digits II-V, a calcar that is bound to m. gastrocnemius, and a modified m. tensor plagiopatagii which appears to function like a drawstring to close a pair of subaxillary 'pouches'. The function of these structures and additional characteristics of the limbs appear related to terrestrial and arboreal locomotion exhibited by these bats.

Key words: Molossidae, Cheiromeles, hindlimb morphology, calcar, functional morphology

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 237-244

Microsatellite genotypes of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus: Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) obtained from their feces


Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 569 Dabney Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610, USA
1Corresponding author: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were genotyped from their feces using three sets of microsatellite primers. Genotypes obtained from bat fecal DNA consistently matched the genotypes obtained from DNA extracted from wing membrane tissue of the same bat. Identical microsatellite genotypes were also obtained from multiple fecal DNA samples from the same bat. DNA obtained from feces using a modification to the DNeasy tissue kit (Qiagen) amplified from 92% (83/90) of the samples upon the first PCR. The use of fecal DNA provides opportunities for addressing ecological and behavioral questions for animals that are difficult to capture, rare, or endangered.

Key words: microsatellites, Eptesicus fuscus, feces, fecal DNA, extraction protocol

Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 3(2) 2001: 245-256


Rousettus aegyptiacus (E. Geoffrey St. Hilaire, 1810) and Pipistrellus anchietae (Seabra, 1900), justified emendations of original spellings


Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt a. M., Germany
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Key words: Rousettus aegyptiacus, Pipistrellus anchietae, justified emendations

Emendation of Glauconycteris curryi


Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto,
ON M5S2C6, Canada; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Key words: Glauconycteris curryae, emendation

The discovery of Wroughton's free-tailed bat Otomops wroughtoni
(Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Cambodia


1Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Cambodia Program, IPO Box 1620, Phnom Perth, Cambodia
E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Harrison Institute, Bowerwood House, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks, Kent, TN13, 3AQ, Great Britain

Key words: Molossidae, Otomops wroughtoni, new record, Cambodia

Choosing the 'correct' bat detector - a reply


1P.O. Box 2323, Rohnert Park, California, CA 94927, USA; E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
2Western Ecological Research Center, USGS, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956, USA

Key words: bat, echolocation, zero-crossing, Anabat, harmonics